Stable Lithium Electrodeposition at Ultra-High Current Densities Enabled by 3D PMF/Li Composite Anode

Lei Fan, Houlong Zhuang, Weidong Zhang, Yao Fu, Zhihao Liao, Yingying Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

202 Scopus citations


Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are promising candidates for next-generation energy storage due to their high energy densities on both weight and volume bases. However, LMBs usually undergo uncontrollable lithium deposition, unstable solid electrolyte interphase, and volume expansion, which easily lead to low Coulombic efficiency, poor cycling performance, and even safety hazards, hindering their practical applications for more than forty years. These issues can be further exacerbated if operated at high current densities. Here a stable lithium metal battery enabled by 3D porous poly-melamine-formaldehyde (PMF)/Li composite anode is reported. PMF with a large number of polar groups (amine and triazine) can effectively homogenize Li-ion concentration when these ions approach to the anode surface and thus achieve uniform Li deposition. Moreover, the 3D structured anode can serve as a Li host to mitigate the volume change during Li stripping and plating process. Galvanostatic measurements demonstrate that the 3D composite electrode can achieve high-lithium Coulombic efficiency of 94.7% at an ultrahigh current density of 10 mA cm−2 after 50 cycles with low hysteresis and smooth voltage plateaus. When coupled with Li4Ti5O12, half-cells show enhanced rate capabilities and Coulombic efficiencies, opening great opportunities for high-energy batteries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1703360
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number15
StatePublished - May 25 2018


  • composite lithium anodes
  • high current densities
  • lithium metal batteries
  • stable lithium electrodeposition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


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