Stabilization of human standing posture using functional neuromuscular stimulation

Didik Soetanto, Chen-Yuan Kuo, Darko Babic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS)/functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a potential way to restore some functionality to the limbs of patients with spinal cord injury through direct/indirect stimulation of the motoneuron. One of the constraints for wider use of FNS on paraplegic patients is the lack of efficient control algorithm. Most of the published works on FNS/FES control are based on oversimplified models of human body dynamics. An innovative control strategy for stabilizing the standing posture of paraplegic patients is proposed here which is a combination of a proportional-plus-derivative controller for motions of the skeletal system and a control action prediction mechanism to produce musculotendon activation. The goal is to produce musculotendon torque which can approximate those demanded by the controller for the skeletal system. In computer simulations, using a detailed skeletal-musculotendon-muscle activation dynamics model of human body, this FNS/FES control approach can stabilize a paraplegic patient's standing posture with the minimum number of musculotendon groups. Also, it is found that this control strategy can maintain stability even in the presence of reasonable variations in the controller's musculotendon parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1589-1597
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 20 2001


  • Computer simulations
  • FNS
  • Musculotendon
  • Paraplegic patient
  • Stabilization of human standing posture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation


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