Special and General Education Teachers’ Beliefs About Writing and Writing Instruction

Steve Graham, Alyson A. Collins, Stephen Ciullo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Seventy-six general education and 67 special education teachers working in the same 66 elementary schools were surveyed about their beliefs about writing. Each teacher taught writing to one or more fourth-grade students receiving special education services, including students with learning disabilities. Survey findings indicated that general education teachers believed that they were better prepared to teach writing than special education teachers, and they were more positive about their own efforts to learn to teach writing. General education teachers also held more positive attitudes about teaching writing and their own capabilities as a writer than their special education counterparts. Furthermore, general educators were more likely than special educators to indicate that writing developed through effort and process, and less likely to think that writing knowledge came from experts. Beliefs about adequacy of preparation to teach writing predicted teachers’ beliefs about their level of knowledge to teach writing, efficacy to overcome students’ writing difficulties, and attitudes toward teaching writing. Recommendations for future research and implications for practice are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-179
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2023


  • attitudes
  • beliefs
  • epistemology
  • self-efficacy
  • special education
  • teacher efficacy
  • teachers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • Health Professions(all)


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