This paper gives a description of how "sum-of-squares" (SOS) techniques can be used to check frequency-domain conditions for the stability of neutral differential systems. For delay-dependent stability, we adapt an approach of Zhang et al.  and show how the associated conditions can be expressed as the infeasibility of certain semialgebraic sets. For delay-independent stability, we propose an alternative method of reducing the problem to infeasibility of certain semialgebraic sets. Then, using Positivstellensatz results from semi-algebraic geometry, we convert these infeasibility conditions to feasibility problems using sum-of-squares variables. By bounding the degree of the variables and using the Matlab toolbox SOSTOOLS , these conditions can be checked using semidefinite programming.