Soft input soft output Kalman equalizer for MIMO frequency selective fading channels

Subhadeep Roy, Tolga M. Duman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


We consider the Kalman filter for equalization of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), frequency selective, quasi-static fading channel. More specifically, we consider a coded system, where the incoming bit stream is convolutionally encoded, interleaved and then spatially multiplexed across the transmit antennas. Each substream is modulated into M-ary symbols before being transmitted over a frequency selective channel. At the receiver, we propose to use the Kalman filter as a low complexity MIMO equalizer, as opposed to the trellis based maximum a-posteriori (MAP) equalizer whose computational complexity grows exponentially with the channel memory, the number of transmit antennas and the spectral efficiency (bits/s/Hz) of the system. We modify the structure of the Kalman filter and enable it to process the a-priori (soft) information provided by the channel decoder, thereby allowing us to perform iterative (turbo) equalization on the received sequence. The iterative equalizer structure is designed for general M-ary constellations. We also propose a low complexity version of the above algorithm whose performance is comparable to its full complexity counterpart, but which achieves a significant complexity reduction. We demonstrate via simulations that for higher order constellations, when sufficient number of receive antennas are available (e.g. for a 2 transmitter, 3 receiver system, QPSK), the performance of the proposed algorithms after 4 iterations is within 1.5 dB of the non-iterative MAP algorithm with close to an order of magnitude complexity reduction. By objectively quantifying the complexity of all the considered algorithms we show that the complexity reduction for the proposed schemes becomes increasingly significant for practical systems with moderate to large constellation sizes and a large number of transmit antennas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)506-514
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2007


  • Equalizer
  • Frequency selective channel
  • Kalman filter
  • Low complexity
  • MIMO
  • Turbo equalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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