Simultaneous improvement of energy efficiency and product quality in PCB lamination process

You Jin Park, Rong Pan, Connie M. Borror, Douglas Montgomery, Gyu Bong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Recently, efficient use of energy resources has become a very critical issue in most industries due to various reasons such as the high price of energy resources and environmental problems. The printed circuit board (PCB) industry is known as one of the major manufacturing industries that consumes a moderately large amount of electricity. Of all PCB manufacturing processes, the photolithography process is the most complicated. The photolithography process consists of: 1) a lamination process; 2) an exposure process; and, 3) a development process. Particularly, the lamination process appears to consume the most energy among the entire PCB manufacturing processes. This is due to the use of high temperatures and high pressures in that process which are required to employ photo sensitive dry film resist-coating on the panel. In addition, the PCB panel quality after the lamination process is highly dependent on conditions of three main operating parameters, temperature, pressure, and conveyor belt speed. In this research, we employ designed experiments and model-building techniques to obtain optimal settings of the three main operating parameters which will simultaneously minimize energy consumption while maximizing the probability of creating a non-defective PCB panel during the lamination process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-256
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing - Green Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Energy consumption
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Lamination process
  • Multi-objective optimization problem
  • Non-defective probability
  • PCB manufacturing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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