Seventy Minutes Plus or Minus 10 — A Review of Travel Time Budget Studies

Asif Ahmed, Peter Stopher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


This paper provides a comprehensive review of travel-time budget (TTB) studies in the literature for about the past four decades. Starting with the concept of TTBs, it discusses both the studies that support the existence of TTB and also those that deem the concept to be unfounded. Sociodemographic variables and their relation to TTB are also discussed briefly. However, as past studies use different data sources, survey techniques, and methodology for analysis, cross comparison of studies is not possible. Most importantly, the underlying cause of the regularity that is found at an aggregate level is still not known. The idea of TTB is important because, if it exists, it would mean that the total time spent on travelling per person per day will remain unchanged in spite of all improvements to transport. TTB has immense implications for transport policies and it is usually ignored. The paper also explores the available theoretical explanation of this concept, past research gaps and new analysis potentials. Recent directions in TTB studies are also discussed together with the potential use of multiday multiyear panel data in TTB research to explore the phenomenon better than before.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)607-625
Number of pages19
JournalTransport Reviews
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 5 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • constant travel budget
  • human energy expenditure on travel
  • multiday GPS travel survey data
  • travel-time budgets
  • travel-time expenditure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transportation


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