Self-improving anode for lithium-ion batteries based on amorphous to cubic phase transition in TiO 2 nanotubes

Hui Xiong, Handan Yildirim, Elena V. Shevchenko, Vitali B. Prakapenka, Bonil Koo, Michael D. Slater, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Subramanian K.R.S. Sankaranarayanan, Jeffrey P. Greeley, Sanja Tepavcevic, Nada M. Dimitrijevic, Paul Podsiadlo, Christopher S. Johnson, Tijana Rajh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


We report an electrochemically driven transformation of amorphous TiO 2 nanotubes for Li-ion battery anodes into a face-centered-cubic crystalline phase that self-improves as the cycling proceeds. The intercalation/deintercalation processes of Li ions in the electrochemically grown TiO 2 nanotubes were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopies along with advanced computational methods. These techniques confirm spontaneous development of a long-range order in amorphous TiO 2 in the presence of high concentration of Li ions (>75%). The adopted cubic structure shows long-term reversibility, enhanced power with capacity approaching the stochiometry of Li 2Ti 2O 4. The anode shows also superior stability over 600 cycles and exhibits high specific energy (∼200 W h kg electrode -1) delivered at a specific power of ∼30 kW kg electrode -1. The TiO 2 anode in a full Li-ion cell with a LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 cathode operates at 2.8 V and demonstrates the highest (∼310 mA h/g) reversible specific capacity reported to date. Our conceptually new approach fosters the ability of amorphous nanoscale electrodes to maximize their capacity in operando, opening a new avenue for synthesis of safe and durable high-power/high-capacity batteries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3181-3187
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 2 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Energy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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