Premise of study: Phylogenetic relationships of the papilionoid legumes (Papilionoideae) reveal that the early branches are more highly diverse in floral morphology than are other clades of Papilionoideae. This study attempts for the first time to comprehensively sample the early-branching clades of this economically and ecologically important legume subfamily and thus to resolve relationships among them. Methods: Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the plastid matK and trnL intron sequences included 29 genera not yet sampled in matK phylogenies of the Papilionoideae, 11 of which were sampled for DNA sequence data for the first time. Key results: The comprehensively sampled matK phylogeny better resolved the deep-branching relationships and increased support for many clades within Papilionoideae. The potentially earliest-branching papilionoid clade does not include any genus traditionally assigned to tribe Swartzieae. Dipterygeae is monophyletic with the inclusion of Monopteryx. The genera Aldina and Amphimas represent two of the nine main but as yet unresolved lineages comprising the large 50-kb inversion clade within papilionoids. The quinolizidine-alkaloid-accumulating genistoid clade is expanded to include a strongly supported subclade containing Ormosia and the previously unplaced Clathrotropis s.s., Panurea, and Spirotropis. Camoensia is the first-branching genus of the core genistoids. Conclusions: The well-resolved phylogeny of the earliest-branching papilionoids generated in this study will greatly facilitate the efforts to redefine and stabilize the classification of this legume subfamily. Many key floral traits did not often predict phylogenetic relationships, so comparative studies on floral evolution and plant-animal interactions, for example, should also benefit from this study.
- Phylogenetic systematics
- TrnL intron
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Plant Science