Revisiting technological pedagogical content knowledge: Exploring the TPACK framework

Leanna Archambault, Joshua H. Barnett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

329 Scopus citations


This study examines the nature of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) through the use of a factor analysis. Using a survey with 24 items designed to measure each of the areas described by the TPACK framework, and measuring the responses of 596 online teachers from across the United States, data suggest that while the framework is helpful from an organizational standpoint, it is difficult to separate out each of the domains, calling into question their existence in practice. Three major factors become evident, but rather than being comprised of pedagogy, content, and technology, the only clear domain that distinguishes itself is that of technology. This research examines the validity of the TPACK model and suggests that measuring each of these domains is complicated and convoluted, potentially due to the notion that they are not separate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1656-1662
Number of pages7
JournalComputers and Education
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010


  • Factor analysis
  • Online learning
  • Technological pedagogical content knowledge
  • Technology framework

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Education


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