Revised coordinates for Apollo hardware

R. V. Wagner, E. J. Speyerer, K. N. Burns, J. Danton, Mark Robinson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Scopus citations


The Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provides direct imaging, at pixel scales of 0.5 to 1.0 meter, of anthropogenic equipment left on the Moon. We identified the descent stages of the lunar modules, central stations of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, Laser Ranging Retroreflectors (LRRRs), and Lunar Roving Vehicles in each NAC image of the Apollo landing sites. The pixel coordinates of those objects were then converted to latitude and longitude coordinates using SPICE routines in the U.S. Geological Survey Integrated System for Imagers and Spectrometers. For images that contained an LRRR, pointing information was updated to match the well known LRRR coordinates. Final coordinates for each object are reported as averages from multiple images. NAC observations allow refinement of the locations of these objects and result in a more accurate geodetic referencing at these historic sites. Additionally, the anthropogenic coordinate analysis enables realistic error estimates for NAC derived coordinates for features anywhere on the Moon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives
PublisherInternational Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 2012
Event22nd Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, ISPRS 2012 - Melbourne, Australia
Duration: Aug 25 2012Sep 1 2012


Other22nd Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, ISPRS 2012


  • Accuracy
  • Geodesy
  • Georeferencing
  • Identification
  • Reference data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Geography, Planning and Development


Dive into the research topics of 'Revised coordinates for Apollo hardware'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this