Review of Wide-Area Controllers for Supporting Power System Stability

Nicolas Mira-Gebauer, Claudia Rahmann, Ricardo Alvarez-Malebran, Vijay Vittal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Countries around the world are transitioning from conventional power systems dominated by synchronous generators towards low-carbon resources, characterized by high levels of converter-interfaced generators (CIGs). With this transformation, hundreds or even thousands of fast power electronic devices will be added to the grid as CIG penetration increases, thus making the system dynamic response progressively faster and more complex. This future scenario poses significant challenges in power system stability and control. To sustain power system stability in future power systems and achieve a seamless transition, we need to depart from current control practices based on decentralized and stand-alone local control actions and begin to explore new methods. A promising technology to overcome control complexities and underlying stability issues in future low-inertia power systems are wide area control (WAC). Within this technology, the control is no longer based on a purely localized tasks but rather a set of coordinated actions across wide areas in which interplant communication plays a key role. This paper presents the state of the art of existing research efforts in the field of WAC strategies for maintaining stability in large-scale low-inertia power systems of the future. We present different WAC solutions that have been put forward hitherto, we put these control strategies into context, classify them, and finally relate them to each other. We also raise open questions and challenges that need to be addressed in order to ensure a secure transition towards power systems dominated by CIGs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8073-8095
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2023


  • Power system control
  • control techniques
  • power system control architecture
  • power system stability
  • telecommunication issues
  • time delays
  • wide-area control (WAC)
  • wide-area measurement systems (WAMSs)
  • wide-area power systems (WAPSs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science


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