Review of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing for metals

Leila Ladani, Maryam Sadeghilaridjani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Additive manufacturing (AM) as a disruptive technology has received much attention in recent years. In practice, however, much effort is focused on the AM of polymers. It is comparatively more expensive and more challenging to additively manufacture metallic parts due to their high temperature, the cost of producing powders, and capital outlays for metal additive manufacturing equipment. The main technology currently used by numerous companies in the aerospace and bio-medical sectors to fabricate metallic parts is powder bed technology, in which either electron or laser beams are used to melt and fuse the powder particles line by line to make a three-dimensional part. Since this technology is new and also sought by manufacturers, many scientific questions have arisen that need to be answered. This manuscript gives an introduction to the technology and com-mon materials and applications. Furthermore, the microstructure and quality of parts made using powder bed technology for several materials that are commonly fabricated using this technology are reviewed and the effects of several process parameters investigated in the literature are exam-ined. New advances in fabricating highly conductive metals such as copper and aluminum are dis-cussed and potential for future improvements is explored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1391
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Aluminum alloys
  • Bulk metallic glasses
  • Copper alloys
  • Electron beam melting
  • High entropy alloys
  • Laser melting
  • Nickel alloys
  • Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing
  • Steel
  • Titanium alloys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Metals and Alloys


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