This paper examines the issues associated with the conceptualization and formation of community in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). The paper is guided by qualitative research methods and is based on the context of southern African countries, with specific reference to Botswana. The results indicate that the clustering of communities to become CBNRM beneficiary groups, regardless of their geographical locations, interests, tribal relationships, historical formations, and the adoption of a single CBNRM implementation model approach fail to incorporate local variations in natural resources, culture, and socioeconomic conditions. Thus, the argument made in this paper is that most problems experienced cannot be attributed to CBNRM as a concept, but to the implementation processes, hence the call for a rethinking in the implementation of CBNRM projects. The paper provides alternative community models to overcome the issues associated with the hasty community clustering process in CBNRM.
- community development
- community participation
- community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)
- participatory conservation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Sociology and Political Science