Resting energy expenditure relationship with macronutrients and gestational weight gain: A pilot study

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5 Scopus citations


Resting energy expenditure (REE) comprises 60% of total energy expenditure and variations may be associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) or maternal diet. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of metabolic tracking on GWG and the association with maternal macronutrients. Pregnant women aged 29.8 ± 4.9 years (78.6% non-Hispanic, White) with gestational age (GA) < 17 week were randomized to Breezing™ (n = 16) or control (n = 12) groups for 13 weeks. REE by Breezing™ indirect calorimetry, anthropometrics and dietary intake were collected every two weeks. Early (14–21 weeks), late (21–28 weeks), and overall (14–28 weeks) changes in macronutrients and GWG were calculated. The Breezing™ group had a significantly greater rate of GWG [F (1,23) = 6.8, p = 0.02] in the latter half of the second trimester. Late (−155.3 ± 309.2 vs. 207.1 ± 416.5 kcal, p = 0.01) and overall (−143.8 ± 339.2 vs. 191.8 ± 422.2 kcal, p = 0.03) changes in energy consumption were significantly different between Breezing™ and control groups, respectively. Early changes in REE were positively correlated with overall changes in carbohydrates (r = 0.58, p = 0.02). Regular metabolism tracking alone did not have an impact on GWG. Early shifts in REE might impact GWG later in pregnancy. Investigation in a larger population from preconception through postpartum is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number450
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • Basal metabolic rate
  • Maternal nutrition
  • Maternal obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy and nutrition
  • Weight gain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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