Relativistic effects in atomic inner-shell ionization by a focused electron probe

Christian Dwyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


A relativistic theory of atomic inner-shell ionization is presented in a form directly applicable to the calculation of the electron energy loss signal obtained using a focused electron probe in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Expressions are given for the implementation of the theory assuming a central potential atomic model. Analytical and numerical calculations are used to demonstrate that, for points in the diffraction plane lying close to the optic axis, the difference between the relativistic and nonrelativistic theories can be significant, even for an incident energy of 100keV (usually considered too low an energy for relativistic effects to be important). Implications for the quantitative matching of experimental and simulated data are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number144102
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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