Relations of young children's agreeableness and resiliency to effortful control and impulsivity

Amanda Cumberland-Li, Nancy Eisenberg, Mark Reiser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


The hypothesis that the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to children's agreeableness would be at least partly indirect through their resiliency was tested. Eighty-two children (M age = 58.67 mos.) were participants. Children nominated peers on agreeableness and completed a behavioral measure of effortful control. Teachers and a subsample of parents reported on children's effortful control, impulsivity, resiliency, and agreeableness. In a structural equation model, effortful control predicted high agreeableness, and this relation was indirect through resiliency. Impulsivity predicted high resiliency and was negatively related to agreeableness. In an alternative model, effortful control predicted high resiliency indirectly through agreeableness and impulsivity was not related to agreeableness. A third model indicated that with the exception of a path from effortful control to agreeableness, agreeableness and resiliency did not predict effortful control or impulsivity. The findings suggest that effortful control and impulsivity may contribute to resiliency and agreeableness, that resiliency and agreeableness are interrelated, and that resilient children are not overly controlled.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-212
Number of pages20
JournalSocial Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2004


  • Personality
  • Resiliency
  • Temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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