Regional growth transition clubs in the United States

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4 Scopus citations


This article develops a growth-based regionalisation of the United States using both principal components and cluster analyses to endogenously sort states into regional transition clubs with somewhat uniform annual rates of per capita real GSP growth in the period 1977-2004. I correlate the principal components with annual growth in per capita real GDP and assess spatial dependencies in the identified transition clubs. Growth variability in the transition clubs is compared with growth variability in BEA and Census regions. Results show a large Coastal transition club that contains most of the New England, Middle Atlantic, and South Atlantic census regions. California, Minnesota, and Arizona belong to this grouping. A second growth transition club titled Eastern Interior groups most of the states in the East North Central and the East South Central census regions. A Western Interior region groups states in the southern Great Plains. Coefficients of variation show that these three large interstate groupings grow more uniformly compared with associated census and BEA regions. Growth in western states is idiosyncratic. Most western states group with one or two related states, California and Arizona associate with the Coastal club, Nevada does not pigeonhole well with other states, and Alaska's annual growth trajectory is unique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-53
Number of pages21
JournalPapers in Regional Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2008


  • Regional growth
  • Spatial dependence
  • Spatial heterogeneity
  • Transition clusters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)


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