Redesigning photosynthesis to sustainably meet global food and bioenergy demand

Donald R. Ort, Sabeeha S. Merchant, Jean Alric, Alice Barkan, Robert E. Blankenship, Ralph Bock, Roberta Croce, Maureen R. Hanson, Julian M. Hibberd, Stephen P. Long, Thomas Moore, James Moroney, Krishna K. Niyogi, Martin A J Parry, Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya, Roger C. Prince, Kevin Redding, Martin H. Spalding, Klaas J. Van Wijk, Willem VermaasSusanne Von Caemmerer, Andreas P M Weber, Todd O. Yeates, Joshua S. Yuan, Xin Guang Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

677 Scopus citations


The world's crop productivity is stagnating whereas population growth, rising affluence, and mandates for biofuels put increasing demands on agriculture. Meanwhile, demand for increasing cropland competes with equally crucial global sustainability and environmental protection needs. Addressing this looming agricultural crisis will be one of our greatest scientific challenges in the coming decades, and success will require substantial improvements at many levels. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Prospects range from straightforward alterations, already supported by preliminary evidence of feasibility, to substantial redesigns that are currently only conceptual, but that may be enabled by new developments in synthetic biology. Although some proposed redesigns are certain to face obstacles that will require alternate routes, the efforts should lead to new discoveries and technical advances with important impacts on the global problem of crop productivity and bioenergy production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8529-8536
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number28
StatePublished - Jul 14 2015


  • Carbon capture/conversion
  • Enabling plant biotechnology tools
  • Light capture/conversion
  • Smart canopy
  • Sustainable crop production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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