Recommendations for animal DNA forensic and identity testing

Bruce Budowle, Paolo Garofano, Andreas Hellman, Melba Ketchum, Sree Kanthaswamy, Walther Parson, Wim Van Haeringen, Steve Fain, Tom Broad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations


Genetic analysis in animals has been used for many applications, such as kinship analysis, for determining the sire of an offspring when a female has been exposed to multiple males, determining parentage when an animal switches offspring with another dam, extended lineage reconstruction, estimating inbreeding, identification in breed registries, and speciation. It now also is being used increasingly to characterize animal materials in forensic cases. As such, it is important to operate under a set of minimum guidelines that assures that all service providers have a template to follow for quality practices. None have been delineated for animal genetic identity testing. Based on the model for human DNA forensic analyses, a basic discussion of the issues and guidelines is provided for animal testing to include analytical practices, data evaluation, nomenclature, allele designation, statistics, validation, proficiency testing, lineage markers, casework files, and reporting. These should provide a basis for professional societies and/or working groups to establish more formalized recommendations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-302
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Animal genetics
  • DNA typing
  • Forensic science
  • Guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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