Quantifying X-ray fluorescence data using MAPS

Tara Nietzold, Bradley M. West, Michael Stuckelberger, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Mariana Bertoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy maps by fitting the raw spectra to a known standard is crucial for evaluating chemical composition and elemental distribution within a material. Synchrotron-based XRF has become an integral characterization technique for a variety of research topics, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and its high sensitivity. Today, synchrotrons can acquire fluorescence data at spatial resolutions well below a micron, allowing for the evaluation of compositional variations at the nanoscale. Through proper quantification, it is then possible to obtain an in-depth, high-resolution understanding of elemental segregation, stoichiometric relationships, and clustering behavior. This article explains how to use the MAPS fitting software developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the quantification of full 2-D XRF maps. We use as an example results from a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell, taken at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 2-ID-D at Argonne National Laboratory. We show the standard procedure for fitting raw data, demonstrate how to evaluate the quality of a fit and present the typical outputs generated by the program. In addition, we discuss in this manuscript certain software limitations and offer suggestions for how to further correct the data to be numerically accurate and representative of spatially resolved, elemental concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere56042
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number132
StatePublished - Feb 17 2018


  • Chemistry
  • Defects
  • Fitting
  • Impurities
  • Issue 132
  • MAPS
  • Quantification
  • Software
  • Solar cell
  • Synchrotron
  • X-ray fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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