Psychometric Fundamentals of the Social Skills Improvement System: Social–Emotional Learning Edition Rating Forms

Frank Gresham, Stephen Elliott, Sarah Metallo, Shelby Byrd, Elizabeth Wilson, Megan Erickson, Kaitlin Cassidy, Robert Altman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


This study described the development of the Social Skills Improvement System Social Emotional Learning Edition Rating Forms (SSIS SEL RF) for teachers, parents, and students. This new multirater assessment is a reconfiguration of the SSIS Rating Scales items inspired by the CASEL Social Emotional Competency framework. The internal structure and score reliability estimates were examined across three raters for a common sample of more than 200 individual children ages 3 to 18 years. Confirmatory factor analyses tested against the CASEL five-dimensional SEL theoretical model demonstrated adequate fit for the SSIS SEL Parent and Student RFs and mediocre fit of the Teacher RF. Internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater reliability estimates for scores on each of the SSIS SEL RFs all met or exceeded acceptable criteria. Thus, researchers and practitioners interested in measuring the social–emotional behavior of children ages 3 to 18 can expect reliable scores and structurally meaningful behavior content within the Collaborative on Academic Social Emotional Learning (CASEL) SEL competency framework. Limitations to the present findings and suggestions for future research conclude the report.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-209
Number of pages16
JournalAssessment for Effective Intervention
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • CASEL SEL model
  • SSIS SEL edition rating forms
  • confirmatory factor evidence
  • score reliability estimates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Health Professions(all)


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