Protectoration: A fast and efficient multiple-failure recovery technique for resilient packet ring using dark fiber

Martin Maier, Martin Herzog, Michael Scheutzow, Martin Reisslein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The two protection methods wrapping and steering used in IEEE 802.17 resilient packet ring (RPR); provide fast but very inefficient and limited network failure recovery. Due to the increased length of the backup path, RPR suffers from high traffic loss, a decreased throughput-delay performances and the lack of resilience against multiple link and/or node failures. To achieve an improved resilience, interconnecting a subset of the ring nodes by means of a dark-fiber single-hop star wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network is proposed. In doing so, the ring network is divided into separate domains, each being fully recoverable from a single link or node failure without losing full network connectivity. A novel hybrid fault recovery technique, termed protectoration, is proposed and examined by means of probabilistic analysis and simulation in terms of stability, channel utilization, and throughput-delay performance. The proposed protectoration technique 1) combines the fast recovery time of protection and the bandwidth efficiency of restoration, 2) provides full recovery from multiple link and node failures, 3) builds on both wrapping and steering protection methods of RPR and, thus, allows for an evolutionary upgrade of existing RPR networks, and 4) does not require the convergence of routing protocols in response to failures and, thus, improves the routing stability and network availability. Numerical investigations in this paper show that the location of failures has a strong impact on the network performánce. For a given failure location, the protectoration technique is able to accommodate multiple ring failures without significant performance loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2816-2838
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2005


  • Availability
  • MAC
  • MAN
  • Protection
  • RPR
  • Reliability
  • Resilience
  • Restoration
  • Survivability
  • WDM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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