Predicting the Cu6Sn5 Growth Kinetics During Thermal Aging of Cu-Sn Solder Joints Using Simplistic Kinetic Modeling

Ankita Roy, Amey Luktuke, Nikhilesh Chawla, Kumar Ankit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Accumulation of intermetallic compounds (IMC), such as Cu6Sn5, adversely impacts the solder joint toughness. Therefore, a basic understanding of the factors that determine the growth kinetics of IMC under distinct operating conditions is warranted to improve the reliability of microelectronic devices. However, predicting the growth of IMC involves tedious experiments or large-scale 3D phase-field simulations, both of which are labor- and resource-intensive techniques. Here, we present simple approaches that couple material thermodynamics with diffusional kinetics for predicting the isothermal growth characteristics of Cu6Sn5 in Cu-Sn alloy for temperatures ranging from 145°C to 230°C. While our calculations can reproduce the kinetics of growth obtained from experiments, they also indicate the limited role of IMC/Sn interfacial curvature in determining the rate at which the IMC layer thickens. The reported parametric study, while contrasting the uni- and bidirectional Cu6Sn5 growth rates, highlights the utility of combined thermodynamic-kinetic 1D approaches in predicting steady-state growth velocity of IMCs in Cu-Sn alloys.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4063-4072
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Intermetallics
  • annealing
  • diffusion
  • joining
  • phase transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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