Plant-made vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals

Henry Daniell, Nameirakpam D. Singh, Hugh Mason, Stephen J. Streatfield

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

324 Scopus citations


Plant cells are ideal bioreactors for the production and oral delivery of vaccines and biopharmaceuticals, eliminating the need for expensive fermentation, purification, cold storage, transportation and sterile delivery. Plant-made vaccines have been developed for two decades but none has advanced beyond Phase I. However, two plant-made biopharmaceuticals are now advancing through Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials. In this review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different plant expression systems (stable nuclear and chloroplast or transient viral) and their current limitations or challenges. We provide suggestions for advancing this valuable concept for clinical applications and conclude that greater research emphasis is needed on large-scale production, purification, functional characterization, oral delivery and preclinical evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)669-679
Number of pages11
JournalTrends in Plant Science
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science


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