The human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (hVDR), like other members of the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily, has been observed to undergo rapid phosphorylation. We report here that the hVDR is a substrate for casein kinase II (CK-II), a regulatory enzyme of significance in the function of nuclear proteins. Intact hVDRs produced by in vitro transcription/translation or in a baculovirus overexpression system served as efficient substrates for purified bovine CK-II, and the magnitude of this phosphorylation was not affected by the addition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. CK-II-catalyzed phosphorylation of truncated hVDRs suggested that phosphorylated residues may occur between Arg121 and Asp232, including the region of hVDR which we have previously demonstrated to contain a major site(s) of phosphorylation in intact cells (Jones, B. B., Jurutka, P. W., Haussler, C. A., Haussler, M. R., and Whitfield, G. K. (1991) Mol. Endocrinol. 5, 1137-1146). Site-directed mutagenesis of serine/threonine residues in this region now reveals a site of phosphorylation at Ser208 contained within the sequence -S208(P)EEDSDD- , a classic CK-II consensus recognition site. Mutation of this serine to a glycine drastically reduces phosphorylation of hVDR by CK-II, in vitro. The Ser208 mutant receptor also shows a dramatic decrease in [32P]orthophosphate incorporation when transfected into COS-7 cells. We therefore propose that phosphorylation of hVDR at Ser208 in target cells is mediated by casein kinase II or a similar enzyme, and that this quantitatively significant post-translational modification is a potential mechanism for the modulation of the activity of hVDR in controlling gene transcription.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology