Peer victimization: Manifestations and relations to school adjustment in kindergarten

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A primary objective of this investigation was to extend our knowledge about the prevalence and forms of peer victimization in kindergarten and its relation to children's school adjustment. Four types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, direct verbal, indirect verbal, and general) were assessed using a sample of 200 kindergartners. Peer victimization was reported by a large percentage of children, with females and males being equally at risk. General and direct verbal victimization were reported more often than indirect verbal and physical victimization. Correlations indicated that all types of victimization were related to children's loneliness in school and their expressed desire to avoid that environment. Both forms of verbal victimization were associated with negative attitudes about school. Regression analyses showed that different forms of victimization made unique contributions to school adjustment outcomes. Victimized children were compared to nonvictimized children on several social and academic behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-283
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of School Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjustment
  • Peer relations
  • Peer victimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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