Passive and Flexible Wireless Electronics Fabricated on Parylene/PDMS Substrate for Stimulation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

Ahmed Abed Benbuk, Hamid Esmaeili, Shiyi Liu, Alejandra Patino-Guerrero, Raymond Q. Migrino, Junseok Chae, Mehdi Nikkhah, Jennifer Blain Christen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we report the development of a wireless, passive, biocompatible, and flexible system for stimulation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMS). Fabricated on a transparent parylene/PDMS substrate, the proposed stimulator enables real-time excitation and characterization of hiPSC-CMs cultured on-board. The device comprises a rectenna operating at 2.35 GHz which receives radio frequency (RF) energy from an external transmitter and converts it into DC voltage to deliver monophasic stimulation. The operation of the stimulator was primarily verified by delivering monophasic voltage pulses through gold electrodes to hiPSC-CMs cultured on the Matrigel-coated substrates. Stimulated hiPSC-CMs beat in accordance with the monophasic pulses when delivered at 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz pulsing frequency, while no significant cell death was observed. The wireless stimulator could generate monophasic pulses with an amplitude of 8 V at a distance of 15 mm. These results demonstrated the proposed wireless stimulator's efficacy for providing electrical stimulation to engineered cardiac tissues. The proposed stimulator will have a wide application in tissue engineering where a fully wireless stimulation of electroconductive cells is needed. The device also has potential to be employed as a cardiac stimulator by delivering external stimulation and regulating the contractions of cardiac tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3287-3297
Number of pages11
JournalACS sensors
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 25 2022


  • Cardiac tissue
  • Passive biocompatible rectenna
  • RF energy harvesting
  • Stem cells
  • Wireless stimulator
  • hiPSC-CMs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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