Overview of real-time simulation as a supporting effort to smart-grid attainment

Luis Ibarra, Antonio Rosales, Pedro Ponce, Arturo Molina, Raja Ayyanar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The smart-grid approach undergoes many difficulties regarding the strategy that will enable its actual implementation. In this paper, an overview of real-time simulation technologies and their applicability to the smart-grid approach are presented as enabling steps toward the smart-grid's actual implementation. The objective of this work is to contribute with an introductory text for interested readers of real-time systems in the context of modern electric needs and trends. In addition, a comprehensive review of current applications of real-time simulation in electric systems is provided, together with the basis to understand real-time simulation and the topologies and hardware used to implement it. Furthermore, an overview of the evolution of real-time simulators in the industrial and academic background and its current challenges are introduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number817
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017


  • Electric systems
  • Grid modernization
  • Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)
  • Power-HIL (P-HIL)
  • Real-time simulation
  • Smart-grid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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