Orienting to Otherness: Intellectual Humility, Moral Foundations, and Mature Alterity Outcomes

David R. Paine, Steven J. Sandage, Joshua N. Hook, Don E. Davis, Kathryn A. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Scholars and practitioners have increasingly called for the development of social justice commitment, intercultural competence, and appreciation of diversity among ministers and helping professionals. In religious contexts, individual factors may contribute to differences in the degree to which spiritual leaders emphasize intercultural and social justice initiatives. Personality factors, such as virtues and specific moral commitments, predict the degree to which people report positive attitudes and demonstrate mature alterity. In this study, we explored the degree to which intellectual humility predicted mature alterity outcomes after controlling for the effects of five moral foundations (care, fairness, loyalty, authority, purity) in a sample of Christian seminary students in the United States. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed for ministry and the helping professions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)224-237
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Psychology and Theology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • psychology of religion
  • spiritual formation/direction
  • virtues

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Religious studies
  • Psychology(all)


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