Optimization of hydrogen stations in Florida using the Flow-Refueling Location Model

Michael Kuby, Lee Lines, Ronald Schultz, Zhixiao Xie, Jong Geun Kim, Seow Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

202 Scopus citations


This paper develops and applies a model that locates hydrogen stations to refuel the maximum volume of vehicle flows. Inputs to the model include a road network with average speeds; the origin-destination flow volumes between each origin and destination; a maximum driving range between refueling stops; and the number of stations to build. The Flow-Refueling Location Model maximizes the flow volumes that can be refueled, measured either in number of trips or vehicle-miles traveled. Geographic Information Systems and heuristic algorithms are integrated in a spatial decision support system that researchers can use to develop data, enter assumptions, analyze scenarios, evaluate tradeoffs, and map results. For the Florida Hydrogen Initiative, we used this model to investigate strategies for rolling out an initial refueling infrastructure in Florida at two different scales of analysis: metropolitan Orlando and statewide. By analyzing a variety of scenarios at both scales of analysis, we identify a robust set of stations that perform well under a variety of assumptions, and develop a strategy for phasing in clustered and connecting stations in several stages or tiers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6045-6064
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • Capturing
  • Infrastructure
  • Intercepting
  • Location
  • Model
  • Network
  • Optimal
  • Refuel
  • Station

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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