Optimal design of FMRI experiments using circulant (Almost-)orthogonal arrays

Yuan Lung Lin, Frederick Kin Hing Phoa, Ming-Hung Kao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a pioneering technology for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli. Although efficient designs on these fMRI experiments are important for rendering precise statistical inference on brain functions, they are not systematically constructed. Design with circulant property is crucial for estimating a hemodynamic response function (HRF) and discussing fMRI experimental optimality. In this paper, we develop a theory that not only successfully explains the structure of a circulant design, but also provides a method of constructing efficient fMRI designs systematically. We further provide a class of two-level circulant designs with good performance (statistically optimal), and they can be used to estimate the HRF of a stimulus type and study the comparison of two HRFs. Some efficient three- and four-levels circulant designs are also provided, and we proved the existence of a class of circulant orthogonal arrays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2483-2510
Number of pages28
JournalAnnals of Statistics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • Circulant almost orthogonal arrays
  • Complete difference system
  • Design efficiency
  • Hemodynamic response function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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