Operation, control, and applications of the modular multilevel converter: A review

Suman Debnath, Jiangchao Qin, Behrooz Bahrani, Maryam Saeedifard, Peter Barbosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1900 Scopus citations


The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has been a subject of increasing importance for medium/high-power energy conversion systems. Over the past few years, significant research has been done to address the technical challenges associated with the operation and control of the MMC. In this paper, a general overview of the basics of operation of the MMC along with its control challenges are discussed, and a review of state-of-the-art control strategies and trends is presented. Finally, the applications of the MMC and their challenges are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6757006
Pages (from-to)37-53
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2015


  • Capacitor voltage balancing
  • circulating current control
  • high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission
  • modular multilevel converter (MMC)
  • modulation techniques
  • redundancy
  • variable-speed drive systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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