On the frontiers of collaboration and conflict: how context influences the success of collaboration

Michael Schoon, Mollie Chapman, Jacqueline Loos, Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, Candice Carr Kelman, Jaime Aburto, Steve Alexander, Jacopo Baggio, Ute Brady, Jessica Cockburn, Georgina Cundill, Gustavo Garcia Lopez, Rosemary Hill, Catherine Robinson, Gladman Thondhlana, Micaela Trimble, Dane Whittaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The increasing scale and interconnection of many environmental challenges–from climate change to land use–has resulted in the need to collaborate across borders and boundaries of all types. Traditional centralized, top-down and sectoral approaches to governance of single-issue areas or species within social-ecological systems often have limited potential to alleviate issues that go beyond their jurisdiction. As a result, collaborative governance approaches have come to the forefront. A great deal of past research has examined the conditions under which collaborative efforts are likely to achieve desired outcomes. However, few studies have analyzed how the means to achieve successful collaborative outcomes differ based on context when examined across multiple studies. In this research, we begin to chart a means for doing this. Building onto a Context-Mechanism-Outcome (CMO) Framework, we provide a coding manual to analyse how contextual variables mediate the effects of mechanism variables on outcomes of the collaborative governance of social-ecological systems. Through the examination of four cases, we provide a proof-of-concept assessment and show the utility of the CMO framework and coding manual to draw comparisons across cases for understanding how collaborative outcomes are contingent on the social-ecological context in which they occur.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-399
Number of pages17
JournalEcosystems and People
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021


  • Albert Norström
  • Collaboration
  • SDG15 Life on Land < UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • SDG16 Peace and Justice Strong Institutions < UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • SDG17 Partnershipsto achieve the Goal < UN Sustainable Development Goals
  • context
  • governance
  • transdisciplinarity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Ecology


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