Node-based vs. path-based location models for urban hydrogen refueling stations: Comparing convenience and coverage abilities

Yudai Honma, Michael Kuby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


For optimizing locations of hydrogen refueling stations, two popular approaches represent fuel demands as either nodes or paths, which imply different refueling behavior and definitions of convenience. This paper compares path-based vs. node-based models from the perspective of minimizing total additional travel time and feasibly covering all demands with the same number of stations. For this comparison, two new station location models are introduced that extend the Flow Capturing Location Model (FCLM) and p-Median Problem (PMP) by consistently defining upper limits on vehicle driving range and maximum inconvenience on refueling trips. Results for an idealized metropolitan area and Orlando, Florida show that path-based refueling substantially reduces wasteful travel time for refueling and covers more demand feasibly and more equitably in most scenarios. Path-based models incorporate the fact that residents of a zone regularly interact with other zones; therefore, individual stations can cover flows originating both near and far from their locations. This study suggests that path-based approaches to planning hydrogen refueling infrastructure enable more people in more neighborhoods to refuel fuel-cell vehicles without wasting excessive time or running out of fuel.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15246-15261
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number29
StatePublished - Jun 7 2019


  • Alternative-fuel vehicle
  • Equity
  • Infrastructure
  • Optimization
  • Refueling
  • Station location

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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