New directions in X-ray microscopy

Roger Falcone, Chris Jacobsen, Janos Kirz, Stefano Marchesini, David Shapiro, John Spence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


The development of high brightness X-ray sources and high resolution X-ray optics has led to rapid advances in Xray microscopy. Scanning microscopes and full-field instruments are in operation at synchrotron light sources worldwide, and provide spatial resolution routinely in the 25-50 nm range using zone plate focusing elements. X-ray microscopes can provide elemental maps and/or chemical sensitivity in samples that are too thick for electron microscopy. Lensless techniques, such as diffraction microscopy, holography and ptychography are also being developed. In high resolution imaging of radiation-sensitive material the effects of radiation damage needs to be carefully considered. This article is designed to provide an introduction to the current state and future prospects of X-ray microscopy for the non-expert.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-318
Number of pages26
JournalContemporary Physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2011


  • Phase-contrast
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray microscopy
  • X-ray optics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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