Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

Raymond G. Sierra, Hartawan Laksmono, Jan Kern, Rosalie Tran, Johan Hattne, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Benedikt Lassalle-Kaiser, Carina Glöckner, Julia Hellmich, Donald W. Schafer, Nathaniel Echols, Richard J. Gildea, Ralf W. Grosse-Kunstleve, Jonas Sellberg, Trevor A. McQueen, Alan R. Fry, Marc M. Messerschmidt, Alan Miahnahri, M. Marvin Seibert, Christina Y. HamptonDmitri Starodub, N. Duane Loh, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Tsu Chien Weng, Petrus H. Zwart, Pieter Glatzel, Despina Milathianaki, William E. White, Paul D. Adams, Garth J. Williams, Sébastien Boutet, Athina Zouni, Johannes Messinger, Nicholas K. Sauter, Uwe Bergmann, Junko Yano, Vittal K. Yachandra, Michael J. Bogan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

161 Scopus citations


An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14-3.1 l min-1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 l min-1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 g of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1584-1587
Number of pages4
JournalActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • nanoflow electrospinning
  • serial femtosecond crystallography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology


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