Music Mainstreaming: Practices in Arizona

James Frisque, Loretta Niebur, Jere Humphreys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


This study examined mainstreaming in music via a survey of a sample of Arizona music educators. Among the respondents (n = 107), the vast majority are or have been responsible for teaching students with disabilities, although most have received little or no training in special education. Emotionally/behaviorally disordered students are perceived as the most difficult to mainstream, and physically handicapped and speech-impaired students the least difficult. Among disabled students, “learning disabled” was the category most frequently encountered. In most schools, mainstreaming is the only music placement option, and regular music faculty members are the sole providers of music instruction for special learners. Musical ability is rarely the primary reason for mainstreaming students, few respondents have access to special education consultants or adequate time to individualize programs, and most respondents rarely or never participate in placement decisions. The respondents' goals for special learners in music center on student participation and classroom management, with little demarcation between musical and nonmusical goals or objectives. We concluded that effective mainstreaming in music, as implied by the Education for Handicapped Children Act of 1975 and recommended by the Music Educators National Conference, does not exist in Arizona.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-104
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Research in Music Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Music


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