Multilevel mediation modeling in group-based intervention studies

Jennifer L. Krull, David P. MacKinnon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

334 Scopus citations


This article proposes and evaluates a method to test for mediation in multilevel data sets formed when an intervention administered to intact groups is designed to produce change in individual mediator and outcome variables. Simulated data of this form were used to compare ordinary least squares (OLS) and two multilevel estimators of the mediated effect. OLS and multilevel standard error approximations were also evaluated and recommendations given for optimal estimator choice. These methods were applied to data from an existing substance use intervention to show the impact multilevel mediation modeling can have on the conclusions drawn from real-world evaluation studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)418-444
Number of pages27
JournalEvaluation Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Social Sciences


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