Mules, Seals, and Attacking Tools: Analyzing 12 Online Marketplaces

Ziming Zhao, Mukund Sankaran, Gail-Joon Ahn, Thomas J. Holt, Yiming Jing, Hongxin Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


A six-year analysis of 12 multilingual online marketplaces focuses on underground commerce, including stolen user data, fake identities, and attacking tools and services. Migration trends, items for sale, and seller and buyer characteristics reveal commonalities among these fraudulent markets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7478573
Pages (from-to)32-43
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Security and Privacy
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • economics
  • measurement
  • security
  • underground marketplaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Law


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