Modeled De Facto Reuse and Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Drinking Water Source Waters

Thuy Nguyen, Paul Westerhoff, Edward T. Furlong, Dana W. Kolpin, Angela L. Batt, Heath E. Mash, Kathleen M. Schenck, J. Scott Boone, Jacelyn Rice, Susan T. Glassmeyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


De facto reuse is the percentage of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) intake potentially composed of effluent discharged from upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results from grab samples and a De Facto Reuse in our Nation's Consumable Supply (DRINCS) geospatial watershed model were used to quantify contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) concentrations at DWTP intakes to qualitatively compare exposure risks obtained by the two approaches. Between nine and 71 CECs were detected in grab samples. The number of upstream WWTP discharges ranged from 0 to >1,000; comparative de facto reuse results from DRINCS ranged from <0.1 to 13% during average flow and >80% during lower streamflows. Correlation between chemicals detected and DRINCS modeling results were observed, particularly DWTPs withdrawing from midsize water bodies. This comparison advances the utility of DRINCS to identify locations of DWTPs for future CEC sampling and treatment technology testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2-E18
JournalJournal - American Water Works Association
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2018


  • contaminants of emerging concern
  • de facto reuse
  • drinking water source water
  • transport and fate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Water Science and Technology


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