Microwave annealing for preparation of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films

Daniel Adams, Gerald F. Malgas, R. D. Smith, Stephen Massia, Terry Alford, J. W. Mayer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


A sol was spun on single crystal silicon substrates at a spin-rate of 3000-5000 rpm followed by a low temperature cure to form a stable sol-gel/silicon structure. Good quality crystalline HA films of thickness ̃300-400 nm were obtained by annealing the sol-gel/Si structure in a conventional cavity applicator microwave system with a magnetron power of 1300 W, frequency of 2.45 GHz, and at a low processing temperature of 425 °C for annealing times ranging from 2-60 min. X-ray Diffraction and FTIR analysis confirmed that the crystalline quality of the thin films were comparable or better than those heat-treated under the same processing conditions (temperature and time) in a Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system. The RBS data suggests a composition corresponding to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite Ca 10(PO4)6(OH)2, the major inorganic component of bone. The results showed that the HA film thickness decreases with increasing sol spin-rate. The HA films showed good biocompatibility because little monocyte adhesion occurred and hence no inflammatory response was activated in vitro. The potential of microwave annealing for rapid and low temperature processing of good crystalline quality HA thin films derived from sol-gel is demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7150-7158
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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