Microstructure and deformation behavior of biocompatible TiO2 nanotubes on titanium substrate

G. A. Crawford, Nikhilesh Chawla, K. Das, S. Bose, A. Bandyopadhyay

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233 Scopus citations


Titanium oxide coatings have been shown to exhibit desirable properties as biocompatible coatings. We report on the quantitative microstructure characterization and deformation behavior of TiO2 nanotubes on Ti substrate. Nanotubes were processed using anodic oxidation of Ti in a NaF electrolyte solution. Characterization of the as-processed coatings was conducted using scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam milling. Increases in anodization time had no significant effect on tube diameter or tube wall thickness. Coating thickness, however, increased with time up to 2 h of anodization, at which point an equilibrium thickness was established. Nanoindentation was used to probe the mechanical response in terms of Young's modulus and hardness. Progressively higher values of elastic modulus were obtained for thinner films consistent with increasing effects of the Ti substrate. A possible deformation mechanism of densification of the porous oxide and wear of the dense surface is suggested and discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-367
Number of pages9
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Issue number3 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - May 2007


  • Biocompatible
  • Coating
  • Nanoindentation
  • Porosity
  • TiO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


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