Bruce Rittmann, Hester Kobayashi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Biodegradation of antropogenic organics present in waters is a complicated and not very well developed field. However, several factors are clear. When the contaminants are at very low concentration, special consideration must be given to providing enough energy for the bacteria to sustain themselves in the system. Biofilm processes seem most appropriate, since the bacteria are kept in the reactor by attachment, and biofilms predominate naturally with low concentrations. Secondary utilization, nonsteady-state operation, and activated carbon attachment are methods to promote bacterial growth when concentrations are very low. In combination with these three methods, fluidized-bed treatment offers advantages for obtaining very low effluent concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDetoxication of Hazard Waste
Number of pages25
StatePublished - 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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