Micro- and Nanoscale Technologies for Delivery into Adherent Cells

Wonmo Kang, Rebecca L. McNaughton, Horacio D. Espinosa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Several recent micro- and nanotechnologies have provided novel methods for biological studies of adherent cells because the small features of these new biotools provide unique capabilities for accessing cells without the need for suspension or lysis. These novel approaches have enabled gentle but effective delivery of molecules into specific adhered target cells, with unprecedented spatial resolution. We review here recent progress in the development of these technologies with an emphasis on in vitro delivery into adherent cells utilizing mechanical penetration or electroporation. We discuss the major advantages and limitations of these approaches and propose possible strategies for improvements. Finally, we discuss the impact of these technologies on biological research concerning cell-specific temporal studies, for example non-destructive sampling and analysis of intracellular molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)665-678
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • adherent cells
  • cell specificity
  • electroporation
  • nanobiotechnology.
  • non-destructive analysis
  • single-cell access

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Micro- and Nanoscale Technologies for Delivery into Adherent Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this