A specially designed CH 4 -based membrane biofilm batch reactor (MBBR) was applied to investigate anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to perchlorate reduction (AnMO-PR). The 0.21 mM ClO 4 added in the first stage of operation was completely reduced in 28 days, 0.40 mM ClO 4 was reduced within 23 days in stage 2, and 0.56 mM of ClO 4 was reduced within 30 days in stage 3. Although some chlorate (ClO 3 ) accumulated, the recovery of Cl was over 92%. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene documented that the bacterial community was mainly composed by perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), methanotrophic bacteria, and archaea. Real-time quantitative PCR showed the archaeal 16S rRNA and mcrA genes increased as more ClO 4 was reduced, and the predominant archaea belonged to Methanosarcina mazei, which is related to ANME-3, an archaeon able to perform reverse methanogenesis. Several pieces of evidence support that ClO 4 reduction by the MBBR biofilm occurred via a synergism between Methanosarcina and PRB: Methanosarcina oxidized methane through reverse methanogesis and provided electron donor for PRB to reduce ClO 4 . Because methanotrophs were present, we cannot rule out that they also were involved in AnMO-PR if they received O 2 generated by disproportionation of ClO 2 from the PRB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-15
Number of pages7
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019


  • Archaea
  • Bacteria
  • Membrane-biofilm batch reactor
  • Methane oxidation
  • Perchlorate reduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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