Mental disorders in five-year-old children with or without developmental delay: Focus on ADHD

Bruce L. Baker, Cameron L. Neece, Rachel M. Fenning, Keith Crnic, Jan Blacher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Epidemiological studies of children and adolescents with intellectual disability have found 30 to 50% exhibiting clinically significant behavior problems. Few studies, however, have assessed young children, included a cognitively typical comparison group, assessed for specific disorders, and=or studied family correlates of diagnosis. We assessed 236 5-year-old children-95 with developmental delay (DD) and 141 with typical development-for clinical diagnoses using a structured interview. Every disorder assessed was more prevalent in the DD group. The percent of children meeting criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) most highly differentiated the two groups (ratio1/43.21:1). There was high stability from externalizing behavior problems at age 3 to ADHD diagnoses at age 5 in both groups. In regression analyses, parenting stress at child age 3 related to later ADHD diagnosis in both groups and maternal scaffolding (sensitive teaching) also predicted ADHD in the DD group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)492-505
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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