Measurement and prediction of Young's modulus of a Pb-free solder

Nikhilesh Chawla, F. Ochoa, V. V. Ganesh, X. Deng, M. Koopman, K. K. Chawla, S. Scarritt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Accurate and reproducible measurements of the Young's modulus of solders are complicated by the early onset of yielding, microporosity, and variations in cooling rate. In this study, we report measurements of Young's modulus of an Sn-3.5 wt % Ag solder by two techniques: (a) loading-unloading measurements in tension, and (b) non-destructive resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Both techniques yielded similar values of Young's modulus. The modulus decreased with increasing microporosity, in accordance with predicted values. Cooling rate affected the Ag3Sn intermetallic morphology, but not Young's modulus since the distribution of the particles was relatively random. This result was confirmed by microstructure-based finite element modeling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-388
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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