Mars-GRAM 2000: A Mars atmospheric model for engineering applications

C. G. Justus, B. F. James, S. W. Bougher, A. F.C. Bridger, R. M. Haberle, J. R. Murphy, S. Engel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


This paper presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000) and its new features. All parameterizations for temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and Ls have been replaced by input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model, for the surface through 80-km altitude, and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model for 80 to 170 km. A modified Stewart thermospheric model is still used for higher altitudes and for dependence on solar activity. "Climate factors" to tune for agreement with general circulation model data are no longer needed. Adjustment of exospheric temperature is still an option. Consistent with observations from Mars Global Surveyor, a new longitude-dependent wave model is included, with user input to specify waves having one to three wavelenghts around the planet. A simplified perturbation model has been substituted for the earlier one. An input switch allows users to select either East or West longitude positive. The paper includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code, data files, and a users guide for running the program. The Mars-GRAM users guide provides sample input and output and gives an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-202
Number of pages10
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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