Managing and treating per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (Pfas) in membrane concentrates

Emily W. Tow, Mahmut Selim Ersan, Soyoon Kum, Tae Lee, Thomas F. Speth, Christine Owen, Christopher Bellona, Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda, Anne M. Mikelonis, Paul Westerhoff, Chandra Mysore, Val S. Frenkel, Viraj Desilva, W. Shane Walker, Andrew K. Safulko, David A. Ladner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which are present in many waters, have detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) have shown excellent PFAS separation performance in water treatment; however, these membrane systems do not destroy PFAS but produce concentrated residual streams that need to be man-aged. Complete destruction of PFAS in RO and NF concentrate streams is ideal, but long-term sequestration strategies are also employed. Because no single technology is adequate for all situations, a range of processes are reviewed here that hold promise as components of treatment schemes for PFAS-laden membrane system concentrates. Attention is also given to relevant concentration processes because it is beneficial to reduce concentrate volume prior to PFAS destruction or sequestration. Given the costs and challenges of managing PFAS in membrane concentrates, it is critical to evaluate both established and emerging technologies in selecting processes for immediate use and continued research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1233
JournalAWWA Water Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021


  • Brine management
  • Concentrate management
  • Membranes
  • Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Filtration and Separation


Dive into the research topics of 'Managing and treating per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (Pfas) in membrane concentrates'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this